What is Coffee aroma & flavors? 

Aroma is defined as an odor, sensed through the nose and retronasal, best described as a combination of traditional smell and taste through the back of the mouth where the nasal and mouth cavities are interlinked. Flavour is the combination of both aroma and its taste characteristics, acidity, aroma, bitterness, sweetness, and aftertaste.

Various factors such as the type and blend of coffee beans; geographical source; roasting method; and method of brewing.  

Different varieties of coffee beans will affect the taste of brewed coffee. There are over 100 coffee species, but Arabica and Robusta are the two main types. They are grown in different conditions, thus having their own unique profile taste. 

  • Bean origin . . .
    Specific climate factors such as soil, altitude, wind, and rainfall are factors in the coffee plant’s health and ability to produce flavors because the taste differs from origin to origin.

    Caffeine produced by coffee plants is a natural pesticide. At higher altitudes, the beans produce less caffeine, but the cooler climate allows the bean to mature progressively, giving it a higher density resulting in a sweeter brew, more complex flavors, and higher acidity.
  • Type of roast . . .
    Coffee roasting has a significant role in bringing out the aromas and flavors of a bean. Typically there are 3 types of roast, dark, medium, and light roast. The longer a bean is roasted, the more flavors and aromas are unlocked. As such, a cup of light roast coffee has more delicate flavors whereas darker roasts reveal smoky undertones and bold flavors.

  • Bean freshness . . .
    Coffee beans lose their freshness as soon as they’re being roasted. Has a shelf life between 4 to 5 weeks if they are properly packed in a vacuum-sealed or airtight container. Always grind the bean just before brewing to preserve its freshness.

  • Grind size . . .
    Depending on your brewing equipment, a finer ground means a larger surface area of the bean is infused in water, where a coarser ground, water will flow in between the grounds.

Water is the most important compound in the coffee brewing process. The minerals in the water are responsible for extracting flavors from your coffee grounds.

In the absence of these minerals, you’ll get a sharp and bitter-tasting cup of coffee.

Just below the boiling point at 90-96 degrees is ideal to influence solubility and the rate of extraction giving you a cup of coffee with a balanced aroma and flavor.

read more: Is coffee acidic?

How to make coffee without coffee machine?

V60 Pour Over 

How to use the Kopi Sock

How to use a French press as a coffee maker

Learn more about these methods at the free coffee courses online

By: Douglas


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About US | OCM Profile

OCM was started in 2007, focusing first on coffee machines, then marketing for coffee and food and beverage companies. Check out this restaurant marketing guide to learn more about the many campaigns and companies we have worked with. 

OCM has also created many marketing workshops and classes for the F&B industry. Many of the modules are running in the Singapore Skillsfuture Classes in tertiary institutions such as Temasek Polytechnic Skillsfuture Academy and also ITE College East COC classes. 

For the readers (coffee lovers), we continue to share coffee articles (and videos) and have also started a free coffee class section (with free online coffee training supported by coffee partners). 

To connect with coffee and F&B practitioners, join our growing F&B group on Linkedin (20 000 and growing).


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